On a large scale, the most famous example of a : Virtual Singapore offers 3D semantic modeling of the city, to which data such as characteristics of public transport, electricity consumption, building components and infrastructure, as well as information are associated.
on demography, climate and traffic, useful both in the planning and sustainable urban development phase and in the emergency simulation and structuring of evacuation protocols.In architecture and civil engineering, the digital twin can be seen as an evolution of BIM,
Building Information Modeling based on 3D models that provide information to design, build and manage buildings in the most efficient way. But the digital twin, unlike BIM, thanks to the IoT allows not only the design but also the real-time monitoring of the solution identified.
In Japan, Kajima Corporation, one of the five super general contractor companies, has begun to use digital twins for the maintenance of infrastructures and the verification, even in the design phase, of any structural problems. In Italy, it was announced that the construction of the Polcevera viaduct, which will replace the Morandi bridge in Genoa, will have a digital twin, Cymon.
Another famous example of a large-scale digital twin is the port of Rotterdam, which has set itself the goal of being the first digital port by 2030: the quay walls, buoys, cranes, ships are equipped with sensors. which monitor, among other things, the tide level as well as the movement, pressure, turbidity and temperature of the water.
Information that, processed by the digital twin, allows you to predict visibility, fuel consumption, safe arrival of loads. In Italy, digital twin projects have been announced for the ports of Genoa and Ravenna.
There are also those who, like the Italian Violinmaking Association in collaboration with the Polytechnic School of the University of Genoa, use the digital twins of violins to discover the secrets of the best acoustic performances, thus opening the functionalities of the digital twin to historical research and restoration. .How to make a digital twin
A digital twin is the perfect digital copy of information that describes a real entity, be it a product, a process or a system. To achieve it, therefore, before thinking about the technical solutions, a company should decide from where to obtain the data relating to the real activity and production,
i.e. which source data to include, in addition to the data of any sensors: production process plans , operational procedures, supply chain data from a MES-Manufacturing Execution System, the software that manages business productivity?
Once the data sources have been defined, a useful tool to bring them together could be the Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), which graphically represents the company’s production flow with the different processes. The data must in fact be organized and mapped in order to be uniquely identified by the future digital twin, who will associate them with the desired objectives.
The clearer the objectives of using the digital twin are, the easier it will be to “model” it on the basis of the data chosen, and vice versa. In fact, the analytics will be inserted on these data, which answers questions on performance, causes of failure or process simulations, which must be defined during the programming phase. Based on the demand, the analysis will be triggered in the digital twin first and then the consequent action.
It is also to be established how people will interact with the digital twin: which interface? Desktop, mobile, augmented reality devices? Based on the design questions, it will be possible to build a digital twin suited to the needs of business evolution.